The organizing principles of space signify interpersonal rel
The organizing principles of space signify interpersonal relationships as much as they indicate the general state of mankind (Tuan, 1977). Therefore, lifestyle highly depends on one׳s ownership of a private space (Rossler et al., 2005; Hanson, 2008). In addition, the needs and abilities of residents also change in time (Baldwin and Tomita, 2007). Hence, privacy needs vary within individuals at different times and within cultures at different historical periods because of changing social customs and taboos (Newell, 1994). Under this context, a study on the concept of privacy and its influence on the spatial configurations of traditional and modern buildings is important. The basic continine in the present study is that given the current need for privacy in the spatial organization of modern buildings, privacy has not been widely recognized as a behavioral pattern that may influence the spatial configuration of a living space. The research questions are as follows:
Review of literature The idea of space syntax was first introduced in Iran by Abbaszadegan (2002) and Memariyan (2002). Subsequently, this concept was applied to research into the urban structure in Iran (Yazdanfar et al., 2008; Rismanchiyan and Bell, 2010, 2011; Mokhtarzadeh et al., 2012). Kamalipour et al. (2012) categorized the formal composition of native houses in Kerman and studied the spatial configuration with regard to the arrangement of land for the parlor in traditional houses in Kerman. However, a gap exists in the application of this approach to architecture with a special emphasis on environmental psychology.
Definition of key concepts “Housing is a crucial site in the day-to-day life of most individuals for the distribution of wealth, control over life circumstances, access to social resources, important factor in processes of social identity formation, and the establishment and maintenance of social relationships” (Dunn, 2000). Hayward identified nine meanings of home by asking the study subjects to sort statements related to home. The meanings include social relations, social networks, self-identity, privacy, continuity, personalization, activity base, childhood homes, and physical structures (Shin, 2014). According to Hanson, a house is a dynamic structure that grows and changes in size and configuration according to changes in the household (Omer, 2011). In summary, a home entails a physical space that influences the emotional and mental needs of individuals (Saruwono, 2012) and is organized according to a certain order of social principles (Reis, 2003).Thus, spatial relations must be considered in the design of living spaces, especially in houses where individuals perform many of their daily activities.
Methodology Given the limitations in the direct access and observation of the interior spaces of inhabited houses, a useful method can be used to simulate and model such spaces. UCL Depthmap is a specialized software package that contributes to the identification and evaluation of spaces. Depthmap was created by Alasdair Turner at University College London. It is used to perform visibility analysis in architecture and urban planning. (1) Axial line analysis: in Heterokaryon system, elements are linear when the subject of study is movement (Hillier, 2004). A connection graph is defined depending on how each line connects to its surrounding lines. This system is usually used in the analysis of structures in cities, villages, or neighborhood units (Jiang et al., 2000; Montello, 2007; Klarqvist, 1993; Penn, 2011). (2) Convex space analysis: when dealing with social interactions, spaces are convex (Hillier, 2004). Convex spaces are analyzed from two aspects: (a) spaces exhibiting non-linear behavior and the (b) buildings and common spaces among them, as well as the interior arrangement of houses (Jiang et al., 2000; Klarqvist, 1993). (3) Visibility graph analysis (including single isovists and isovist fields: visibility graph analysis is utilized in cases in which the subject of study shows complicated patterns of behavior (Hillier, 2004). Underlying this analysis are fields of view that are visible from a particular point. Therefore, this model of analysis is based on the reflection of light and determines the patterns of motional behavior of people in the environment (Bendikt and Burnham, 1985; Gibson, 1979; Jiang et al., 2000; Turner and Penn, 1999; Montello, 2007; Wineman et al., 2006).